Here are some of the medical cannabis research studies that have been carried out into the use of medical cannabis for Multiple Sclerosis treatment.
Interaction between the protective effects of cannabidiol and palmitoylethanolamide in experimental model of multiple sclerosis in C57BL/6 mice.
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Cannabinoids (CBs) have recently been approved to exert broad anti-inflammatory activities in experimental models of multiple sclerosis (MS). It has been demonstrated that these compounds could also have effects on neurodegeneration, demyelination, and autoimmune processes occurring in the pathology of MS. However, the clinical use of CBs is limited by their psychoactive effects. Among cannabinoid compounds, cannabidiol (CBD) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) have no psychotropic activities. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS, by injecting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) to C57BL/6 mice. We assessed the effects of CBD, PEA, and co-administration of CBD and PEA on neurobehavioral scores, immune cell infiltration, demyelination, axonal injury, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines by using histochemistry methods and real-time RT-PCR.
Treatment with either CBD (5mg/kg) or PEA (5mg/kg) during disease onset reduced the severity of the neurobehavioral scores of EAE. This effect of CBD and PEA was accompanied by diminished inflammation, demyelination, axonal damage and inflammatory cytokine expression while concurrent administration of CBD (5mg/kg) and PEA (5mg/kg) was not as effective as treatment with either drug per se.
These results suggest that, CBD and PEA, non-psychoactive CBs, attenuate neurobehavioral deficits, histological damage, and inflammatory cytokine expression in MOG-immunized animals. However, there is an antagonistic interaction between CBD and PEA in protection against MOG-induced disease.
Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Spasticity is a common and poorly controlled symptom of multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to determine the short-term effect of smoked cannabis on this symptom.
We conducted a placebo-controlled, crossover trial involving adult patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity. We recruited participants from a regional clinic or by referral from specialists. We randomly assigned participants to either the intervention (smoked cannabis, once daily for three days) or control (identical placebo cigarettes, once daily for three days). Each participant was assessed daily before and after treatment. After a washout interval of 11 days, participants crossed over to the opposite group. Our primary outcome was change in spasticity as measured by patient score on the modified Ashworth scale. Our secondary outcomes included patients’ perception of pain (as measured using a visual analogue scale), a timed walk and changes in cognitive function (as measured by patient performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), in addition to ratings of fatigue.
Thirty-seven participants were randomized at the start of the study, 30 of who completed the trial. Treatment with smoked cannabis resulted in a reduction in patient scores on the modified Ashworth scale by an average of 2.74 points more than placebo (p < 0.0001). In addition, treatment reduced pain scores on a visual analogue scale by an average of 5.28 points more than placebo (p = 0.008). Scores for the timed walk did not differ significantly between treatment and placebo (p = 0.2). Scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test decreased by 8.67 points more with treatment than with placebo (p = 0.003). No serious adverse events occurred during the trial.
Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in symptom and pain reduction in participants with treatment-resistant spasticity. Future studies should examine whether different doses can result in similar beneficial effects with less cognitive impact.
We saw a beneficial effect of smoked cannabis on treatment-resistant spasticity and pain associated with multiple sclerosis among our participants.
Using an objective measure, we saw a beneficial effect of inhaled cannabis on spasticity among patients receiving insufficient relief from traditional treatments.
Literature on cannabinoids for pain conditions other than multiple sclerosis is limited, although three recent randomized placebo-controlled trials of smoked cannabis found significant reductions in neuropathic pain. Our participants began with relatively low levels of pain; future studies might focus on patients with more intense pain. Previous studies that have used different delivery systems (pills, oral mucosal sprays) and evaluated participants at study completion rather than within one hour of smoking have reported no or limited adverse effects on cognition.
Cannabis Vs Medical Marijuana
Is there a difference between medical cannabis and medical marijuana? No, not really. The general populace tends to refer to cannabis as marijuana, but those involved in the research and medical use of it tend to refer to it as cannabis because that’s its scientific name and because marijuana is associated with the recreational use. (It’s also sometimes referred to as medicinal hemp oil.)